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Cours Magistral de Civilisation Américaine (cours de fac)

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Document: Cours Magistral de Civilisation Américaine en anglais, cours de 19 pages Extrait: USA is the oldest surviving democracy in the world à longevity Republic = constitution government à democracy: direct or indirect representation Forefathers (= aïeux) didn't believe in perfectibility of mankind.(= être humain) à strong eco union. The federalist papers: to sign the constitution à group of Documents. oldest federal system, oldest republic, oldest constitution : 1787 : amendment. Plan: I) First Lesson II) American mindset III) American minorities IV) Business ethnic vocabulary

[...] projection for median age in 2050 : 36,2 (and Europe : 52,7). - Population growth rate : 3rd largest nation for population (before China & India) and territory (after Russia & Canada). Age structure : - 0/14 : - 15/64 : - 65 + : Populous states : - Calif : 35 M (M=millions) - Texas : 22 M - NY State : 19 M of population concentrated in of the territory. Not many people live in the mountains and empty interior. [...]

[...] Chapter 11 (to file Chapter 11) protects a company from its creditors. = paid on what is owned. Bankruptcy (to file for) To restructure and emerge from bankruptcy. To settle claims A class action suit To liquidate your assets / to sue. To auction off remaining assets Insider trading White-collar crime. A web of complex financial reporting To mop up after corporate scandals = to clean up. To seek to recuperate) to recoup millions in alleged illegal proceeds. Shareholders = stakeholders (larger term) in stakeholders : employees, customers, shareholders, banks, suppliers). [...]

[...] Doctor : - education : $ / year (Medical School) : student leans. - Have to pat malpractice insurance (very high cost) to protect from lawsuit (procès). In France doctor = 30 in US : $ 60/100. (Brochure p. 92/93, 95). Inefficient system : all on papers, any efiles (10 years) for patient, more costly (time and inefficient). Cares per year : of GDP in US = 1,6 trillion for Healthcare. in UK and in France. Premiums : up since 2001. [...]

[...] - streamlined.(= perfected). rendre parreil. Separation of powers : Checks & balances branches of gv. - Executive (president) - Legislative (congress) - Judiciary (courts, supreme court) to repeal abroger) the law checks and balances limit powers of each. (president : veto) 2/3 maj of Congress agree veto cancelled (override the veto = (expression) : fouler les pieds).) The supreme court judicial review can declare the law unconstitutional taken out of effect : all the branches of gv must respect the constitution. [...]

[...] high individual debt French rate of savings American rate of savings Incomes are stagnating. The $ is coming down Debt are still growing. Since 2001, low interest rates. The federal reserve determines it. The FR wants to push the economy upward so low interest rate. Now it’s time to high interest rate to stabilize economy. Deficit will go down when money will decrease circuling. Cf POLY p. 60-64. Wall Street vs Middle America : 2-3 years when WS change affected Middle America. [...]

[...] scientists, Galileo invited to have a chair, to be a speaker at Howard university in 1636, but he declined. revolutionary war (not like French revolution), not ideology . no beheadings decapitations), but colonial rebellion. The men who wrote Constitution and declaration of independence were landowners and no revolutionaries . They wanted to get rid of primogeniture, of titles of mobility, of state church (église). No president but called king and finally president ! They didn’t get the rights they’re looking for before. [...]

[...] Other problem: of American companies use only big auditors / auditing firms. Public Accounting Oversight Board (investigates). Securities and Exchange Commission: existed but ineffective / didn’t have an investigation body. Power = clout. General Electric: $ 30 M. The stock exchanges Listed companies. To complain: can be listed: NYSE / AMSE / NASDAQ. Richard Grasso: Former chairman of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE): used able to request $ 140 M at the NYSE for his efforts of chairman. corruption / attempted constitutional amendment. [...]

[...] So the US is (attention : pas powerful. VI) Current economic situation : ECONOMY : The US is the largest, most technology and powerful economy in the world. cf GDP tableau. US GDP per capita is 2nd after Luxembourg 55 000/capita). France is about 15th. US has a 450 billion deficit. Overall public debt = $ 4 trillion. Gv deficit : $ 470 billion. US business The American market less regulated than in Europe, or Japan. The way they sell new products = easier to sell them in the US because no regulation. [...]

[...] Home detention / imprisonment : to do time in prison, to be out of parole. Get a light sentences years). Obstructing justice. Enron (an energy company) $ 1 bn. In the hot seat : - CED Kenneth Lay (Aug to Dec. 2001) : $ 325 million : 95 million in stock option / 94 million in stock sales / rest in salaries + bonuses - Former CED Jeff Skilling. - Former CFD Richard Causey counts of criminal acts against them. To misdeed investors. WorldCom 54 bn in claims. A trumped-up figure. [...]

[...] A large scale of American have no chance for health. Golden age for American expansion A bubble economy = technology market. Certain industry were weakened because of the terrorist attacks airline industry. War to Iraq increase GDP. Unemployment is too low so bad consequences. don’t want to be better skilled + difficulties to employers to find employees. US has an enormous trade deficit American current account is very far in the deficit American imports for more goods than it exports. [...]

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